Heft 3/4 – 2013, 39. Jahrgang

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Internationales Forschungsprojekt zur Radiokultur
Interview mit Golo Föllmer
International research project on radio culture
Interview with Golo Föllmer  3

Thema: Osteuropäischer Rundfunk im Wandel

Rüdiger Ritter
Radio Solidarność
Die antikommunistische Opposition im Äther
Radio Solidarność.
The anti-communist opposition in the ether  9

With the declaration of martial law in Poland in December 1981 the legitimate activities of the Solidarność trade union ended, but their activity did not. The brief existence of a legal opposition in the Soviet bloc country Poland had helped the opposition to consolidate significantly. Although propositions to build a parallel underground state were soon discarded, Solidarność created structures which put the state monopoly into question. This included also the construction of an underground Radio Solidarność. The existence of the underground radio stations also offered the possibility of opposition to people who had less contact with intellectual discourses, e. g. for people from the technical or crafts sector. Methods of production and listening habits evolved that were specially adapted to the underground situation. This contribution describes Radio Solidarność both in the history of Polish radio as well as the history of the Polish opposition movement.

Michael Zok
Das polnische Fernsehen in den 1980er Jahren
Polska Telewizja als Gegenstand und Austragungsort politischer Konflikte
Polish television in the 1980s.
Polska Telewizja as object and site of political conflict  25

The article deals with the political struggles for control of Polish Television between the Communist regime and the Solidarność opposition. The course of events during the 1980s showed that Polish Television was present at all important events like the signing of the agreement between both sides in August 1980, the introduction of martial law in December 1981, the televised debate between Alfred Miodowicz and Lech Wałęsa in November 1988, and finally the opening of the Round Table Negotiations in April 1989. Due to its important role as a carrier of information, both sides continued struggling for control over the institution until the end of communism in Poland. Its downfall can be regarded as directly linked to the loss of the monopoly of information by the Communists.

Vyara Angelova
„Rücksichtslose Zensur und Kasernenzustände“
Die Krisen im Bulgarischen Nationalen Radio nach 1989
‘Ruthless censureship and barracks conditions’
Crises in Bulgarian National Radio after 1989  35

The text presents the history of the public radio in Bulgaria after 1989. Two professional crises in the radio (in 1997 and 2001) are presented in detail. These crises could be considered as a symbol for the media transition process from state owned media to a public media. In their wake, political control over the ex-state media in Bulgaria could no longer be excercised directly, but took on new forms. The article argues that the BNR’s emancipation from the state authority must been seen in the light of increasingly complex dependencies of private media on economical-political circles that suppress the freedom of speech.

Pavla Francová
Die Transformation des Tschechoslowakischen Hörfunks 1988 bis 1993
New beginnings
The transformation of Czechoslovakian Radio 1988-1993  49

Czech radio is a strong fixture in Czech contemporary history. The current article traces the developments in Czechoslovakian, and later Czech, radtion from the late 1980s through the early 1990s.
Especially after the so-called “Velvet Revolution” in November 1989, a very dynamic and stormy period in broadcasting began. Many changes in personnel, organization and content were carried out that were not, however, part of any sort of long-term conception of broadcasting. The new socio-political situation was made even more complicated by the division of Czechoslovakia, which became apparent in the state media (radio and television).
In this light, one can say that the these media were ahead of politics: already at the end of 1991, the law for an autonomous Czech radio was passed. In the following year, the key change took place: the Czech radio (as well as television) was turned from a state-run to a public service institution. Soon after the revolution strong competition from new private broadcasters emerged. Czech Radio became smaller, but also more modern and efficient. The listeners valued the change, and the current situation of the public service broadcaster, 90 years after its founding, can be seen as stable.

Stefan Jarolimek/Konrad Hierasimowicz
Unter staatlichem Einfluss
Rundfunk und Internet in der Republik Belarus
Under state influence
Broadcasting and internet in the Republic of Belarus  60

The paper describes the development of the broadcasting system and the internet in the Republic of Belarus. Besides TV and radio stations, programmes and the most popular websites from Belarus, the article analyses the changing influences from outside the country. Firstly, we illustrate different attempts to establish stations that broadcast from neighbor countries and examine the work of organizations that want to professionalize journalistic work. Secondly,due to the extreme political influence of the Lukashenka-regime, we focus on the political impact in media law, economy, and jurisdiction and show the consequences for journalism and the public sphere.

Thomas Beutelschmidt/ Richard Oehmig/ Yulia Yurtaeva
Internationaler Programmtransfer als transkulturelle Kommunikation zwischen West- und Osteuropa am Beispiel des DDR-Fernsehens
Crossing Borders
International Program Exchange as transcultural communication between Eastern and Western Europe using the example of GDR-Television  73

This article examines GDR television from a media-historical perspective with special focus on the inter- and transnational communication between Eastern and Western Europe in the Cold War until the dissolution of the separate spheres of power in 1990. It focuses on the development and function of the “Organisation Internationale de diffusion et de Télévision Radio” (OIRT), which was founded in 1946, and their network “Intervision”, founded in 1960, both centred in Prague.
The OIRT, as an umbrella organization, coordinated cooperation between the TV-stations in the socialist community and represented their interests to the “European Broadcasting Union” (UER/EBU) and the “Eurovision” system. While “Intervision” handled the direct program traffic between the stations, exchange of movies and occasionally TV series was an autonomous field. A central conclusion is that the programme transfer had a hand in a partial rapprochement and dialogue between East and West. In addition, these permanent relations triggered an early synchronization process with a tendency to cross-culture productions – even if the partial opening in Eastern Europe before 1990 brought only limited pluralism and could not contribute to genuine participation.


Medienhistorisches Forum
18. bis 19. Oktober 2013 in Lutherstadt Wittenberg  83



Indira Dupuis
Transnational and Transcultural Communication Research in Central and Eastern Europe: Trends, Developments, Debates
Jahrestagung 2013 der Fachgruppe Internationale und Interkulturelle Kommunikation der DGPuK, 4. bis 5. Oktober 2013 in Wien und Bratislava  84

Anke Hagedorn
Radiokulturen und Ideologie
Workshop, 13. bis 14. Juni 2013 in Konstanz  85

Dawid Kasprowicz/Anneke Janssen
Den Wissenschaften auf der Spur
Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Medienwissenschaft (GfM), 3. bis 5. Oktober 2013 in Lüneburg  87



Eva Boller
Visual War Frames – Der Libyen-Konflikt 2011 in europäischen TV-Nachrichten
Visual War Frames – The conflict in Libya 2011 in European TV news  90

This PhD project operates under the assumption that images and video from conflict areas have enormous power. This will be demonstrated using the example of the Libya conflict in three major European news sources: for Germany the ARD ‘Tagesthemen’, in France the ‘Jounal de 20 heures’ of broadcaster TFI and in Great Britain the BBC’s ‘News at Ten’. Through comparative research, the similarities and differences in used and unused visual and textual material will be established. At the same time it will analyse the extent to which new technical possibilities such as mobile phone videos from the internet and material from social media had an impace on visual framing in the three countries.

Leslie McMurtry
Revolution in the Echo Chamber: Audio Drama’s Past, Present, and Future  92

This project stresses an all-inclusive approach to what is collectively known as radio or audio drama, from the nine-minute science fiction podcast to the full-cast studio drama produced by the BBC.  Radio drama is a prevalent form which is under-researched and for which there is very little in the way of an understood, accepted critical vocabulary. This project surveys the current radio/audio drama scene in the US, UK, and Europe and examines the aesthetic contributions of radio drama and on the connection between radio drama and sound studies. While all radio drama listeners know that this medium taps into special portions of our imaginations, very little formal analysis has been done to explain why or how this can be.  One of radio’s greatest assets is also paradoxically one of its least explored.

Kristina Offterdinger
Radio „Majak“ – Identitätsstiftung und soziale Differenzierung durch Radio in der poststalinistischen Gesellschaft der Sowjetunion, 1964-1991
Radio „Majak“ – identity formation and social differentiation through radio in the post-Stalinist society of the Soviet Union, 1964-1991  94

Radio Majak, founded in 1964, was the first Soviet radio station that provided its listeners with the latest information and music, being inspired by the broadcast concept of western radio stations. The key questions of this project are: what was the function of Majak in the postwar Soviet Union? How did the concept of Majak work in practice? Was Majak successful? The project tries to discover whether Majak was able to create different public spheres, and what discourses and what interactions between the regime, the media creators and the audience can be found there.


Thorolf Lipp
Spielarten des Dokumentarischen. Einführung in die
Geschichte und Theorie des Nonfiktionalen Films.
(Florian Mundhenke)  96

Norbert Schneider
Autonomie und Transparenz
Privatsphäre und öffentlicher Raum in Zeiten der Digitalisierung
(Margarete Keilacker)  98

Andreas Kötzing
Kultur- und Filmpolitik im Kalten Krieg
Die Filmfestivals von Leipzig und Oberhausen in gesamtdeutscher Perspektive 1954 – 1972.
(Fernando Ramos Arenas)  99

Julia von Heinz
Die freundliche Übernahme. Der Einfluss des öffentlich-rechtlichen Fernsehens auf den deutschen Kinofilm von 1950 bis 2010.
(Sebastian Kuhn)  101

Sabine Mecking, Yvonne Wasserloos (Hg.)
Musik – Macht – Staat. Kulturelle, soziale und
politische Wandlungsprozesse in der Moderne.
(Daniel Morat)  103


Zum Tod von Ursula Wagenführ  104

Autorinnen und Autoren dieses Heftes  U4