Rundfunk und Geschichte
ISSN 2751-1650 (Online)
Thema: „1968“ in den Medien
Protest als Medien-Inszenierung
Zur Wechselwirkung zwischen Protestbewegungen und Massenmedien am Beispiel der Studentenbewegung der 60er Jahre 3
The article discusses the complex and ambiguous interrelation between protest movements and Western television in the 1960s?a period that is described as an historical turning point in regard to media coverage on protest. Following Dieter Rucht’s differentiation of media strategies in social movements, the paper argues that the student’s movement of the late 1960s developed four prominent media attitudes and strategies which were established and professionalized later on by further movements: absence, attack, alternatives, and adaption: After having experienced periods of absence from the mass media, they developed an array of internal alternative media (journals, magazines, leaflets etc.). Some of these were not only directed to the internal public sphere of the movement, but also to a broad public. Furthermore, they harshly attacked the mass media, analyzing the economic and political interests guiding their public world constructions and their effects. Finally, they generated several strategies for media adaption: organizing protest actions as spectacular events, with visual and symbolic material that addressed the visual focus of television and print media.
„Ihre Autos bemalten sie mit den Farben ihrer Träume“
Die Darstellung westlicher Alternativtourist/innen auf dem „Hippie Trail“ in ARD-Fernsehberichten der frühen 1970er Jahre 20
1968 not only saw leftist student protests in Western Europe. In the decades between 1960 and 1980, the new interest of American and Western European youth in mind expansion and exploration of one’s consciousness first led to the experimentation with psychoactive drugs like LSD. Shortly after, East Asian religions, especially Buddhism, attracted many young people in the West on their spiritual journey for authenticity and truth. For the Counterculture on both sides of the Atlantic an idealized India functioned as the embodiment of the complete “Other” in contrast to the perceived coldness of the materialistic “West”. Especially after the “failed” protests of 1968, many youthful travellers set out on a journey to India and Nepal and an inner journey in search of themselves. The overland route quickly became known as the “Hippie Trail”. Where the Hippies went, television went too. The article asks how German public TV presented the travellers. Despite emphasising the problem of drug consumption among the Hippies, the general longing of the travellers for a deeper meaning and their interest in “Eastern” religions were not completely discarded as senseless enterprises. In fact, the article argues that the Hippies, as representatives of decidedly hedonistic approach to life, anticipated the general societal trend towards postmaterialist values. Therefore, their desire to drop out of modern meritocracy was met with a certain degree of tolerance by the broadcast producers.
„1968“ ist Geschichte!
Beobachtungen zum 50. Jahrestag 31
The television played a significant role in the construction of „1968“ and the image of West German protest movement of the late 1960s has never been static. In 2018 Rudi Dutschke, members of the Kommune 1 and other 1968ers returned on TV. This article explores televised narratives about the student protesters. At the 50th Anniversary of „1968“ both new and old stories have been shared with the television audience: What is significant is that the West German protest movement became part of the „long 1960s”. The protest movement is now part of the postwar transformations and the changes that took place from the 1950s to the 1970s. In the old perspective „1968“ is viewed as a „second foundation” of the Federal Republic and as the beginning of a liberalised Germany. The year 2018 showed us on the one hand that „1968“ have become gradually historicized by TV, but on the other hand some myths lives on.
RTL and Europe n°1 as central actors
The importance of mobility for Commercial Radio stations during the Parisian events of Mai 68 41
Commercial radio stations RTL and Europe n°1, nicknamed „radio-barricades“ by Prime Minister Pompidou, played a crucial role during the events of May 1968 in France. This article aims at casting light upon the key factors that explain this role. Based on audio documents of the period and oral interviews with former radio reporters, this paper will deconstruct the entangled radio landscape of 1968. It will also analyse the ways commercial radio stations covered the events, through live news coverage, mobility of their staff and the technical evolution that made it possible.
„Wer die Welt so beschreibt, wie sie ist, auch der verändert sie.“
Rundfunkhistorisches Gespräch mit Klaus Bresser (Auszüge) 51
Materialitäten – An den Schnittstellen von Rundfunk- und Technikgeschichte
Jahrestagung des Studienkreises Rundfunk und Geschichte im TECHNOSEUM Mannheim 60
Erinnerung an Wilhelm Kaisen 62
Musik – Programm – Politik: Die Musikprogramme der amerikanischen Besatzungssender zwischen 1945 und 1949
(Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) 63
My dissertation examines the music programming of the radio stations in the American zone of occupation during the post-war period in Germany, 1945-49, focusing on Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Bremen and Munich. While extensive research has been conducted on the histories of radio and of post-war Germany, only little light has been shed on the musical repertoire and modes of canonization fostered through radio. In order to contribute to a differentiated history of post-war music as it was received through the radio, this doctoral thesis aims at determining which composers, compositions, musicians and genres were preferred in radio programming. This research is enabled by the great number of sources such as correspondence, financial documents and radio magazines as well as manuscripts, recordings and OWI records used in radio programs. These repertoires will be put in relation to the ways in which Americans influenced German music programming. In concurrence with the diverse political and aesthetic interests of German radio employees and American ICD personnel, various tendencies effecting musical radio programming can be identified, moving beyond the notion that music programming was merely determined by the pragmatic availability of records. Finally, this dissertation project intends to reconstruct individual musical profiles of the radio stations in the American zone, thereby facilitating a comparative view of music programming and highlighting the different contexts in which specific kinds of music were framed.
Der Rundfunk und der Sender Luxemburg in Luxemburg 1940-1945
(Universität Düsseldorf) 65
Broadcasting and National Socialist propaganda are inextricably linked. Given this paramount importance, it is astonishing that the Luxembourg Radio station has so far only been considered at the crossroads of national and international research, even though it was one of Europe’s most powerful channels at the time. In this project will be examined to which extent the National Socialist broadcasting policy has been applied since the occupation of the country in 1940 to the Luxembourg broadcasting landscape and how the population reacted to it. In addition, the contributions to the BBC radio program of the emigrated Grand Ducal family and the London exile government are examined. A final point will be the Allied work at the Luxembourg station from 1944 after the liberation of the country by US troops. Fundamental will be above all the daily newspapers, record and sheet music as well as sound documents. This dissertation project sees itself as a project, which should close a gap in the research of Luxembourg contemporary history especially in cultural studies.
Kein Ende der Geschichte? Deutungsmuster und narrative Strukturen im Radio am Beispiel der aktuellen Holocaust-Berichterstattung
(Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt) 67
Although is known that journalism plays a major role in the construction of social memories, hardly investigated is, how journalists process the Holocaust in their reporting, according to which rules and interpretations. Just as neglected is how recipients appropriate the journalistic offers. What role does the question of guilt and responsibility play, which is discussed controversially in this context? Do journalists run the risk of moralizing instead of reporting neutrally and factually? And how the audience do react? This doctoral thesis aims to examine the gaps in research using the example of current radio reporting and is based on the assumption that purely auditory formats can circumvent moral conventions in which visual media are trapped. The research approach of Grounded Theory is combined with a group discussion in order to gain patterns of interpretation on the part of radio journalists as well as on the part of the audience.
Analogue Escapes. Media and Communication. Practices in Refugee Camps in Germany (1945–2000)
(Södertörn University, Stockholm, Schweden) 69
The topic of this PhD project are media and communication practices among refugees in camps and shelters in Germany from 1945 up to 2000. It historically approaches the need for information and connection in settings of forced migration in order to explore histories of media and communication from below, to historically understand refugees as agents in practices of media and communication. Responding to a prevailing rhetoric of digital newness and exceptionalism in research about media and forced migration, this project wants to historically scrutinize how refugees were part of changing media environments before the internet, included different technologies into communicatory practices, or invented ways of remaining connected in times of scarce information. Understanding histories of new media as histories of their uses, which are negotiated and embedded in social structures of the time, the project uses the setting of the refugee camp to explore how the experience of ‘refugeedom’ and ‘information precarity’, of disrupted identity in the non-mobile space of the camp, was mediated and communicated in analogue media environments. Camps are spaces which negotiate social imaginaries about belonging and exclusion in modern societies, and, thus, are iconic for the 20th centuries migration and refugee regimes. Hence, considering these questions in a time frame before digital media gives us insight into alternative media histories growing out of the specific information situations at heterotopian spaces such as the refugee camp.
Die Erfindung von „1968“. Der studentische Protest im bundesdeutschen Fernsehen 1977-1998
(Horst Pöttker) 71
Mehr Haltung bitte! Wozu uns unsere Geschichte verpflichtet
(Edgar Lersch) 72
Georg Karl Maximilian Schulz
Die Stimme Bayerns: Der Bayerische Rundfunk zwischen Tradition und Moderne
(Sabine Rittner) 74
Fritz Benscher. Ein Holocaust-Überlebender als Rundfunk- und Fernsehstar in der Bundesrepublik
(Hans-Ulrich Wagner) 75
Freundschaft – Przyjazn. Kamerablicke auf den Nachbarn. Filmkulturelle Beziehungen der DDR mit der VR Polen 1945-1990
(Margarete Wach) 78
»Besorgt mal Filme!« Der internationale Programmhandel des DDR-Fernsehens
(Julia Weber) 79
Zur Geschichte des Rundfunks in Österreich. Programm für die Nation
(Roman Hummel) 81
Ost-West-Global. Das sozialistische Fernsehen im Kalten Krieg
(Thomas Heimann) 82
Autorinnen und Autoren dieses Heftes U4