Heft 01/02 – 2015, 41. Jahrgang
Rundfunk und Geschichte
Heft 01/02 – 2015, 41. Jahrgang
ISSN 2751-1650 (Online)
Leipzig war ein Lebensthema
Interview mit Karl Friedrich Reimers anlässlich seines 80. Geburtstags 3
Muslime auf Sendung
Das „Türkische Geistliche Wort“ im ARD-„Ausländerprogramm“
und islamische Morgenandachten im RIAS
Muslims On Air: The “Turkish Spiritual Word” and Islamic Morning Prayers in the German public-service broadcasting system 9
In the spring of 2007, a major discussion developed among media outlets in Germany addressing the question whether Muslim groups should receive air time for religious broadcasts. The conservative party in Bavaria, the CSU (Christian Social Union), warned against the potential establishment of ‘mosque stations.’ Others, however, thought an Islamic broadcast would be the key for the integration of Muslims in the media. In contrast to previous studies, this paper locates the beginning of Muslim radio programming not in the year 2007, but already in the 1960s, when it was part of the WDR’s (West German Broadcasting) productions for foreign workers. In contrast to secular broadcasts, which were made in Germany, the religious programme was imported from the TRT, the national public station in Turkey, symbolizing the strong unity of Turkish nation and Islamic religion. In addition, the RIAS (Broadcasting in the American Sector) secured air time for religious minorities, though in German language. This paper shows that legal arguments were less significant for the integration of Muslim religious broadcasts into Germany’s public-service broadcasting system than political will of directors pushing integration of Muslims.
Wettkampf der Finanzierungssysteme
Deutsche Presseverleger und öffentlich-rechtlicher Rundfunk im Dauerstreit Finance systems in competition – The long-term conflict between German newspaper publishers and public service broadcasters 22
The Federal Union of German Newspaper Publishers (Bundesverband Deutscher Zeitungsverleger BDZV) used the accusation of unfair competition to defend itself against the introduction of TV advertising in public service broadcasting in what Hans Bausch once called ‘a conflict waged with all political and journalistic means’ between 1956 and 1967. The publishers claimed that unfair competition was generated by the economic advantage enjoyed by public service broadcasters from their assured financing from the licence fee – which now formed a major threat to their advertising revenue with their entry into the advertising market. But more than fifty years later, in the era of the internet boom, the accusation of unfair competition has emerged once more: eight publishers have been in court since 2010 over the ‘Tagesschau-App’for mobile devices, financed by license fees. They are convinced that, with this app, the ARD is offering a free ‘press-like’ product – and thereby threatening a business model based on sales, or, in other words, creating unfair competition. This article explores key questions arising from these cases. What are the similarities and differences between the publishers’ accusations in the 1950s and 1960s and today? How do public service broadcasters defend themselves? How has the competition between press and broadcasting changed in the age of the Internet?
Auf den Spuren der „Funkprinzessin“ Adele Proesler
On the trail of the ‚radio princess’ Adele Proesler 35
The German broadcasting service started in Berlin October 29, 1923. We know little of the artists at the microphone or the engineers who built and maintained the equipment in the first years. When working in archives, the author read about the actress Adele Proesler, who made a fairytale programme from the summer of 1924 to May 1925 for the “Funk-Stunde”, the first broadcast station in Berlin, and became briefly very popular. In her character as “Radio Princess” (Funkprinzessin), she read fairytales twice a week for an hour. This was the first regular children’s program of the “Funk-Stunde”. As a female artist at the microphone, she was a major exception at the male-dominated “Funk-Stunde”. Via numerous archive requests and coincidences it has been possible to reconstruct some of here life. By chance, personal documents of Adele Proesler were discovered in a Berlin basement in the mid-eighties were recently offered for sale. The author has acquired the material and was able to get a deep insight view into the life of Proesler’s life. The article describes the ups and downs in the life of the „Radio Princess“.
Laterna Magica – Technik, Raum, Wahrnehmung
Laterna Magica – Technology, space, perception 47
The predecessor of the slide projector, the laterna magica, appears very rarely in academic discourse. Laterna Magica shows, however, had been popular events since the 18th Century, and, as this article argues, paved the way for our present-day projection practices. By examining technological developments in the context of sketching various forms projection event, the article attempts to demostrate the historical relevance of this hybrid medium. The representative case studies from past projection practice have shown that they attraction of the projections stemmed largely from new techniques such as the dissolving view, which changed perceptions of space and its structures. The change into a medium for presentations can be traced to popular science lectures in the 19th Century. It is less clear, however, why the laterna magica as left so few traces in the standard works of media history.
Michael Tracey and Christian Herzog
British Broadcasting Policy: From the Post-Thatcher Years to the Rise of Blair 57
Having contextualized the rise of a market-driven neoliberal ideology with the broadcasting policies of the Thatcher governments in the first article of this series, in this second piece we lay out the policy narrative from 1990 to the rise of New Labour in 1997. Focusing on the BBC under Director General John Birt (1992-2000), we examine the continuity of the emergent policies in the post-Thatcher years, covering development that led to the Broadcasting Act 1990, BBC Charter renewal in 1994, the Broadcasting Act 1996 and beyond. Birt’s signature policy Producer Choice introduced a market into the programme-making practices of the BBC. It signified the emergence of a new management culture and has been criticized for eroding creativity and increasing bureaucracy. The argument is made that its organizational procedure comes to substitute for a larger, more existential purpose.
„Und ich hatte ja selbst die Fühler in der Gesellschaft.“
Heinz Adameck (†) im Gespräch 69
Medienhistorisches Forum am 7./8. November 2014 in Lutherstadt Wittenberg 102
Mediale Vielfalt in der Kommunikations- und Mediengeschichte
Jahrestagung der Fachgruppe Kommunikationsgeschichte der Deutschen
Gesellschaft für Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (DGPuK),
15. bis 17. Januar 2015 in Hamburg 103
Chance oder Sondermüll. Vom Umgang mit Archivmaterial.
AG DOK Panel auf dem 57. Internationalen
Leipziger Festival für Dokumentar- und Animationsfilm
1. November 2014 in Leipzig 105
Augenzeugen mit Blindenführern. Eine Diskussionsreihe
des IEG Mainz zur Auslandsberichterstattung
November 2014 bis März 2015 in Mainz, Hannover und Köln 106
Tagung der Filmuniversität Babelsberg Konrad Wolf und des Zentrums für Zeithistorische Forschung Potsdam (ZZF) im Brandenburgischen Zentrum für Medienwissenschaften (ZeM) zum Thema „Audiovisuelles Kulturerbe“
26. / 27. März in Potsdam 108
Sanne Aagaard Jensen
Securing Communications. The Danish emergency planning and the NATO
cooperation on telecommunications, 1945-1990 110
This PhD project will examine the role of communications in NATO’s defence build-up and emergency planning in the period from 1945 to the beginning of the 1990s. It will address the question of how telecommunication was defined and handled as a security issue in Western Europe from a civil and a military perspective. By looking into the spate of working groups and committees set up by NATO to deal with communications infrastructure, I will examine how telecommunications increasingly became an integrated part of the defence cooperation in NATO. Furthermore, I will examine how the Danish emergency planning on communications was built up and developed as a civil-military cooperation. In this manner, I will reconstruct the way the orders and recommendations from NATO were carried out in the last link of the chain and map the complex of problems related to the task of building a secure communications infrastructure during the Cold War.
Die Anfänge der deutschen Schallplattenindustrie. Eine
Untersuchung von industriellen und medialen Strukturen
im späten Kaiserreich und der Weimarer Republik
The origins of the German record industry: an examination of industy and media structurs in the late Kaiserreich and the early Weimar Republic 112
The PhD-Project explores the beginnings of German gramophone record production from the final years of the Wilhelmine German Reich to the end of Weimar Republic. Taking the patent registration of records by Emil Berliner in 1887 as a starting point, this period can now be seen as a revolution in music listening. Via a survey of trade journals of the record industry, discographies and record label catalogues, the thesis looks to explain the structure and mode hit song production of the German record industry.
The main emphases here are on the cultural, social and industrial factors that structured this industry. Research on British and US music systems will serve as a comparison to demonstrate the German peculiarity in industry systems and music production.
The PhD-Project seeks on the one hand to demonstrate the importance of the record industry among of media such as cinema or radio, and on the other hand, to show the possibilities for the music industry in the entertainment business at this time.
Kampf um die Medienmacht. Die SPD, Peter Glotz und die medienpolitischen
Auseinandersetzungen in der „alten“ Bundesrepublik
The battle for media power. The Social Democrats, Peter Glotz and the debates on media politics in the ‘old’ Federal Republic of Germany 114
With the signing of a new State Media Treaty in 1987, the German media landscape changed radically and permanently. Until then, private press and public broadcasting were the main poles of the German media system, but with the new treaty private radio and television stations were developed as part of an new dual broadcasting system. This development was made possible by the expanding cable and satellite technologies as well as by liberalising tendencies of the German constitutional jurisdiction and the increasing standardization on the European media market. Thereby media policy became a main topic of the 1970s and 1980s. The Social Democrats faced severe difficulties with the topic of dual broadcasting. On the one hand, as a ‘progressive’ party they would not stand against technical development, but on the other hand, they vehemently resisted against an increasing commercialization of the media landscape. Peter Glotz was one of the few Social Democratic politicians who believed that there was no alternative to the development of a dual broadcasting system. After the change of government in 1982 the introduction of private broadcasting became a premise of Helmut Kohl´s government. Therefore Glotz consistently modernized the media policy of his own party, thus paving the way for the Social Democratic approval of the new State Media Treaty.
Women, Wartime and the BBC 116
Women, Wartime and the BBC examines women’s wartime roles as employees of the British Broadcasting Corporation during the Second World War. As the sole broadcaster in Great Britain during the war the BBC played a pivotal role in informing the nation. While women’s home-front roles in industry, the armed services, and voluntary services have received academic attention, women in the vital service of broadcasting have received limited attention. This project will examine women’s roles at the BBC on all levels, and will track how labour shortages and conscription impacted BBC hiring policy and gender classifications. Women’s entry into previously restricted job categories in behind-the scenes areas such as engineering, and public-facing roles such as announcing will be explored with respect to training regimens, equal-pay issues, and post-war opportunities. The project will make use of archival material from the BBC, government ministries, and private papers of BBC decision-makers. Through interviews and oral histories, the voices of the employees themselves will assist in creating a full picture of the working life of the BBC during the war years.
Mehr als Rock ‘n‘ Roll. Der Radiosender AFN bis Mitte der sechziger Jahre
(Konrad Dussel) 118
Auschwitz-TV. Reflexionen des Holocaust in Fernsehserien
(Christian Hißnauer) 119
„Goldene 50er“ oder „Bleierne Zeit“. Geschichtsbilder
der 50er Jahre im Fernsehen der BRD, 1959-1989
(Edgar Lersch) 121
Günter Agde (Hrsg.)
Wolfgang Kohlhaase. Um die Ecke in die Welt. Über Filme und Freunde
(Thomas Heimann) 123
Autorinnen und Autoren dieses Heftes U4